Lion Anatomy and Appearance


Lions have a short coat of tawny or golden fur with a long tail that has a tuft of longer fur at the end. The markings on their coats are much fainter than the bold stripes and spots displayed on other felines which helps these large carnivores in going unseen when stalking prey in the long grasses. Lions have strong and powerful jaws that contain 30 teeth in total which includes four fang-like canines and four carnassial teeth that are perfectly designed for slicing through flesh.

Lion Mane 

The lion is one of the largest cats in the world with males being taller and heavier than females and displaying a mane of long hair around their faces (in fact, it is the only case in the feline world where males and females actually look different). Thought to be connected with testosterone levels, the mane of the male lion ranges from blonde to red, brown, and black in color and covers their head, neck, and chest.

Lion Distribution and Habitat

Historically, Lions would have been found throughout much of Africa and even in parts of Europe and Asia as well. Today, however, they have been pushed into more isolated pockets of their once vast natural range with the remaining African Lion population now only found in countries in sub-Saharan Africa. There is also still a small population of Asiatic Lions found inhabiting a remote part of the Gir Forest in India.

Despite their dwindling numbers, Lions are actually incredibly adaptable animals that can and will inhabit very dry climates as they get most of the moisture they need from their food. They prefer areas of open woodland, scrub, and long grasslands where there is not only plenty over cover but also a wide variety of prey. They are only not found in areas of rainforest or far into deserts.

Lion Population — How Many White Lions Are Left?

Like other big cat species, the lion is under threat from habitat loss and hunting. Between 1993 and 2014, the population of lions decreased by 42%. The IUCN’s last assessment places the adult population between 23,000 to 39,000 mature individuals. Today, lions as a species are listed as “Vulnerable,” a step above being declared “Endangered.”  

While the Africa lion’s population likely numbers over 20,000, Asiatic lion populations are estimated to number just 600 individuals. Asiatic lions are limited to just a single wildlife sanctuary in India that measures just 545 square miles (1,400 sq. km). Further growth in the population of Asiatic lions will rely on reintroduction into new habitats in India.

Extinct lion species and subpopulations

Scientists believe that 10,000 years ago lions were the most widespread mammal outside of humans. However, today their range is a fraction of its historical size. This comes from the extinction of two unique lion species near the end of the last ice age and habitat loss that has reduced the range of lions  

Barbary lion

The Barbary lion used to live across the North Coast of Africa, with a range that stretched from Egypt to Morocco. Until recently, it was believed to be a distinct subspecies of lion, but research now shows it’s genetically similar to Asiatic lions.

Cape lion

The Cape lion used to live in South Africa and was defined by a darker mane than many other lion populations. Today, the Cape Lion is recognized as a subpopulation rather than a different species or subspecies. There have been no lions found in the Cape lion’s range since 1858.

Cave lion (Panthera leo spelaea)

The Cave lion was a species of lion that stretched across Eurasia and into Alaska and went extinct with the collapse of the mammoth steppe about 12,000 years ago. The species lived across all of continental Europe and many archeological drawings of lions from that area depict cave lions. The species was larger than today’s surviving lions. In recent years, a number of frozen cave lion cubs have been discovered in Russia’s permafrost.

American lion (Panthera leo atrox)

Another lions species that disappeared roughly 12,000 years ago during a period of global climate change, the America lion’s ranged stretched across most of the modern-day United States and Mexico. The American lion is notable for being the largest lions species. Its habitat was similar to today’s African lion, with it hunting across large grasslands on large mammals like bison, deer, and even mammoths.

Lion Behaviour and Lifestyle

Lions are unique among cats as they live together in strong social groups. A pride is made up of 5-15 related females and their cubs along with a generally single male (small groups of 2 or 3 though are not uncommon). Male Lions patrol a territory of around 100m² marking trees and rocks with urine and roaring to warn off intruders. Although male Lions can defend their pride to great effect, their position in the pride is constantly under threat from other males who try to take over their patch and if successful, they will kill any cubs that were sired by the previous male. Despite their enormous size, male Lions actually do hardly any of the hunting as they are often slower and more easily seen than their female counterparts. The Lionesses in the pride hunt together meaning that they are not only more successful on their trips, but they are also able to catch and kill animals that are both faster than them and much bigger.

Lion Roar

Lion roars can be extremely loud, reaching about 114 decibels in volume. Their roar is loud enough to breach the pain threshold of human hearing! Lion roars are louder than any big cat, and can be heard from a distance of about 5 miles away (8 km). The ability to roar at such a high volume is due to unique adaptations in the lion’s vocal folds. Lions generally roar as a warning and to defend their territories.  Beyond warning off males, lion roars also allow members of the pride to find one another as its sound can travel such long distances.


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